Prostatitis: causes, prevention and treatment

Prostatitis: causes, prevention and treatment

We are starting a series of articles devoted to such an urgent medical problem as the inflammatory process of the prostate gland, or prostatitis. The first article will be devoted to the etiology (cause of development) of this disease.

At the beginning, I would like to briefly clarify for the average reader what the prostate gland (PG) is and what role it plays in the male body.

The prostate gland (prostate) is an unpaired exocrine gland of the male reproductive system, the anatomical location of which determines its main functions. It has a certain shape, increases with age and partially changes its appearance. The pancreas is represented by glandular and muscle tissue. Glandular tissue is the source of the formation of hormones and prostatic juice, muscle tissue is responsible for regulating the lumen of the urethra.

The volume of the organ largely depends on the physique of the man. On average, the dimensions of the pancreas are as follows: width – 3.5 cm, length – 3 cm, thickness – about 2 cm. Its weight does not exceed 20 g. The prostate is shaped like a walnut or a large chestnut. Its narrower pole is located around the initial part of the urethra, and the wider one is adjacent to the lower part of the bladder and covers its neck.

The functions of the prostate are multifaceted. The organ is responsible not only for stable sexual performance and support for sperm fertility, but also prevents the reflux of seminal fluid into the bladder and is responsible for the quality of urination. Those. the condition of both the urinary and reproductive systems largely depends on its functioning. There are barrier and secretory functions of the prostate gland. About them – in more detail.


The prostate is a dividing “control point” separating the process of ejaculation from the process of urination: the muscular part of the organ prevents the reflux of seminal fluid into the bladder, thus being its involuntary sphincter. In addition, it is responsible for the quality of urination, retains urine and ensures its normal outflow at the appropriate time.

The pancreas also protects the male reproductive tract from infections. It prevents the penetration of microorganisms from the urinary canal into the upper urinary tract, protecting them from various infectious diseases.


The secretory function of the prostate gland is performed by the glandular part and consists of:

  • production of prostatic juice, which is responsible for sperm quality
  • production of biologically active substances – prostaglandins, which participate in the blood supply to the pelvic organs and are responsible for normal erection
  • synthesis of male sex hormones: testosterone, enzymes, vitamins, immunoglobulins, citric acid and prostate-specific antigen

The prostate, due to its developed innervation system, creates a pleasant sensation during sexual intercourse. The secretion produced by it ensures the liquefaction of the ejaculate and the normal activity of sperm.

So, what is the prostate in men? This is the most important organ, on whose functional abilities full sexual intercourse, stable erection, quality of urination and male productivity depend.

Features of the location of the pancreas, direct connection with the urethra, make it vulnerable to the development of infectious and inflammatory diseases, in particular prostatitis.

One of the pioneers in the study of prostatitis, Stamey T. (1980), believed that half of men will definitely suffer from prostatitis at least once during their lives. Relatively recent international studies (RobertsonC., 1999) confirmed the correctness of his assumption: 35% of men surveyed had symptoms of prostatitis during the last year.

The influence of prostatitis on the quality of life is very significant and is quite comparable with the value of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and Crohn’s disease (Wenninger K., 1996).


Prostatitis has begun to spread rapidly: there is a trend towards rejuvenation of this disease in men. If previously people aged 35 years and above suffered from prostatitis, now young men over 20 years of age are susceptible to the disease. What can cause inflammation of the prostate gland, seemingly so securely hidden in the depths of the small pelvis?


  • features of the structure of the prostate gland, which contributes to the stagnation of secretions in the excretory ducts of the glands
  • structural features of the venous network of the prostate gland, which leads to blood stagnation
  • hormonal imbalances (congenital pathology, uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs)
  • structural features of neuro-reflex connections with the rectum and bladder
  • age-related changes in the prostate itself and hormone levels
  • congenital decreased immunity


  • Chronic perineal injuries (long-term horse riding, cycling)
  • Excessively active sexual activity

It is worth noting that too vigorous sex life has a detrimental effect on the functional activity of the prostate gland. Sexual ability, intensity and character are different for every man. In many ways, sexual activity depends on the physical and neuropsychic state, as well as many environmental factors. Therefore, it is impossible to establish the frequency of sexual intercourse as a norm. Each man must determine it independently, based on his capabilities and well-being. Also, do not forget that during sexual intercourse and the experience of orgasm, all systems of the body are in a state of increased activity, which is why they require increased nervous and energy costs.

The body can fully recover these costs if you adhere to a certain norm. If a man leads an overly active sex life that exceeds physiological and psychological needs, this is called sexual excess. In addition, a man sometimes has sex every day not because there is a need, but as a result of artificial mental and mechanical stimulation. This rhythm of sexual life, which a man practices for a long time or systematically, with short intervals between sexual acts, can negatively affect the functional state of the prostate. Too frequent sexual intercourse leads to the development of neurasthenia, functional disorders of the reproductive system, which leads to poor circulation, depletion of the function of the gonads, reduction of semen. All this can lead to infertility and the development of impotence.


These two factors negatively affect the entire body of every person, but alcohol has a particularly bad effect on the prostate gland, causing it to swell. It happens that men try to artificially enhance sexual feelings with the help of alcohol. However, in addition to the fact that alcohol increases desire, it reduces a man’s sexual performance.

Alcohol and smoking reduce immunity, as a result of which the body’s protective functions are significantly reduced. As a result, bacteria can penetrate into the gland almost unhindered, which is fraught with the development of an inflammatory process of the prostate.

Infectious agents, gram-positive and gram-negative flora (E. coli, Proteus, Epterobacter, Klebsiella and others). Incompletely cured chronic diseases in men can provoke infection from the primary focus hematogenously or lymphogenously into the prostate gland. The causes of prostatitis are most often tonsillitis, bronchitis, herpes, sinusitis and even caries. Various pathogenic bacteria can enter the prostate gland from the rectum or through the urethra.

In addition, in recent years the list of infectious diseases has been supplemented with “mutant diseases.” What’s the matter? Due to the deteriorating environment, poor quality nutrition, and an abundance of medications, the body’s protective functions are weakened and mutations occur in the causative agents of such diseases as acute respiratory infections and the herpes simplex virus. And they seem to be waiting in the wings to provoke prostatitis, urethritis and other diseases. As soon as the body catches a slight cold, these viruses are activated and become “uncontrollable.”

The most dangerous cause of prostatitis is sexually transmitted infections(chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, candidiasis, mycoplasmosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc.). First, urethritis occurs – inflammation of the urethra. Then, if treatment is not started, inflammation invades the prostate gland itself, spreads to the pelvic organs and ascends to the kidneys, causing pyelonephritis.


  • Viruses (most often urogenital herpes – herpes virus type 2, less often influenza virus)
  • Immunological disorders (including autoimmune)
  • Chemical damage due to reflux of urine
  • Neurogenic disorders

Hypothermia of the pelvic area. This can happen to anyone, but lovers of winter fishing or extreme sports, winter recreation, etc. are especially susceptible to hypothermia. Also, the development and exacerbation of chronic prostatitis can be caused by prolonged exposure to drafts.

Sedentary or sedentary lifestyle. Today, a large number of male drivers and truckers suffer from an “occupational” disease. Also, office sedentary work reduces blood circulation in the pelvic area, resulting in congestion in the prostate. The prostate “suffocates” from overflowing with blood. Let us remember the axiom of medicine: where there is stagnation, there is inflammation.

Nervous and physical stress. The development of the inflammatory process in the prostate gland is facilitated by depression, stress, chronic fatigue, and constant lack of sleep. Heavy physical activity and overexertion during active sports also have a negative effect on the prostate.

Irregular sex life may be another reason. This is due to the fact that at the moment of ejaculation the prostate is massaged naturally. If the prostate gland remains motionless for a long time and, accordingly, does not contract, stagnation begins to occur in it, swelling of the prostate tissue develops and interstitial pressure increases.

And, as a consequence, a violation of lymph and blood circulation occurs, then disturbances in the nervous regulation of the prostate gland are added and, as a result, chronic inflammation develops. That is why congestive (chronic non-bacterial) prostatitis is also called the disease of bachelors. Irregular sexual life, often proceeding according to the principle “sometimes thick, sometimes empty”, unfulfilled sexual desires also lead to stagnation of blood in the pelvis and stagnation of secretions in the gland itself.
The main cause of prostatitis is getting into the gland infections that are facilitated by the anatomical structure of the prostate gland. The infection can enter the prostate from the urethra, rectum, lymphatic and hematogenous routes.
Inflamed prostate tissue changes its structure, the functions of cells and the prostate as a whole are disrupted, which can cause serious consequences, including to decreased libido and impotence, the occurrence of chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and urinary disorders. That is why it is important to notice the symptoms and seek help from a doctor. The thing is that men are very afraid of this disease, even after noticing the symptoms, they try to delay the moment of going to the doctor.


Unfortunately, a man’s psychology is such that if something is not right “below the belt,” he is in no hurry to admit it, much less go to the doctor. And he is left with problems alone.

But these problems cannot be solved by themselves.
Sometimes it seems to men that their specific ailments – pain in the perineum, painful and frequent urination, accelerated ejaculation – seem to be random. Maybe they will go away on their own. Some people, however, are alarmed by this.

They understand that any problems in the prostate gland, if not treated correctly, will lead to impotence. Understand, they understand. But they drag on and don’t get treatment. And after a year or two they are already diagnosed with chronic prostatitis.

Inflammation of the prostate gland can be avoided in many cases. To do this, you need to clearly understand what prostatitis is and the possible causes of this disease.
If any of the signs of the disease appear, you should immediately contact a urologist for help, because timely identified disease and a correctly selected course of treatment guarantees relief from prostatitis.

Make an appointment

    New Life
    Doctor David Noga David Noga
    Head of the clinic, surgeon
    Work experience: 34 years
    Doctor Igor Grynda Igor Grynda
    Work experience: 19 years
    Doctor Liliya Kovalerenko Liliya Kovalerenko
    Work experience: 14 years
    Doctor Rodion Fedorishin Rodion Fedorishin
    Urologist, Ph.D.
    Work experience: 25 years